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peaty soil definition

n. Partly decomposed vegetable matter, usually mosses, found in bogs and sometimes burned as fuel or mixed into soil to improve growing conditions. A fibrous mass of organic matter in various stages of decomposition, generally dark brown to black in color and of spongy consistency. Peat soil has traits/properties that make it different from other types of soils. Peat is formed from the residues of dead plants whose aerial organs have become humified and mineralized in the aerated surface stratum of a bog (the peat-producing horizon) by soil invertebrates, bacteria, and fungi. Summary – What Grows Well In Peat Soil. Before the October 1917 Revolution peat was extracted by hand. These subtypes differ in degree of decomposition. There are 51 million ha in Western Europe, more than 100 million ha in Asia, and more than 18 million ha in North America. The second trend involves the thorough decomposition of peat and the conversion of peat into completely new substances. Soil scientists define peat as organic soil with organic content of greater than 35%. The formation of peat acts as a carbon sink, removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, but that carbon dioxide is released when peatlands dry out naturally or are drained, and when peat is burned. Peaty soils are common in swamps, marshes, and bogs found in various temperate regions. n. Partly decomposed vegetable matter, usually mosses, found in bogs and sometimes burned as fuel or mixed into soil to improve growing conditions. of, pertaining to, resembling, or containing the substance peat. Weakly decomposed high-moor peat has a high water- and gas-absorbing capacity and a low coefficient of thermal conductivity. Many erroneous ideas on the origin of peat were refuted in 1729 by J. Degner, who studied peat with a microscope and demonstrated its plant origin. Peat is extracted in the USSR by milling (more than 95 percent of the total commercial extraction), excavation, and the deep-pit method. As known, soil compaction harms gardens while reducing water absorption and affecting plant growth adversely. The site is leveled in a horizontal direction perpendicular to the drainage channels, and a screw-type excavator is used to profile the site with a transverse slope in the direction of the sighting paths. Large deposits of peat in the United States are found in Alaska, Florida, Louisana, Michigan, and California. peat bog, peatbog; peaty… For example, more than 70 percent of the reserves in the Central Zone of the RSFSR has been thoroughly surveyed, compared to 0.6 percent in Western Siberia, where 82.8 percent of the reserves has undergone only preliminary investigation. The surface is prepared after a drainage network has been set up and preliminary drainage has been finished. For example, weakly decomposed high-moor peat. Partially decayed vegetable matter, especially mosses, found in bogs. Peat deposits. Depending on the percent of woody residues present, each type is subdivided into three subtypes—woody, woody-swamp, and swamp. The organic matter is made up of 1–5 percent water-soluble substances, 2–10 percent bitumens, 20–40 percent readily hydrolyz-able compounds, 4–10 percent cellulose, 15–50 percent humic acids, and 5–20 percent lignin. In the 16th and 17th centuries, coke and tar were obtained from peat by roasting. After mechanical processing, dry, highly dispersed peat forms solid blocks of great strength with a heat-producing capacity of 2,650–3,120 kilocalories per kg for a 40 percent moisture content. Pressed peat briquettes are used in the USSR and Ireland for nonindustrial purposes. When dry, weakly decomposed peat is characterized by low porosity (up to 0.3 g/cm3), a low rate of thermal conduction, and a high gas-absorbing capacity. Peaty definition: Peaty soil or land contains a large quantity of peat . The organic matter in peat consists of plant residues that have undergone varying degrees of decomposition. Humus imparts a dark color to peat. In Russia it was the botanical aspect of peat that came under study. Loss of volume (%) of peat soils from drained fen locations. 46). Peat is decaying plant material that is found under the ground in some cool, wet regions. Define Peaty soil. The broad strips of bracken glowed red and yellow against the black, These islands, situated in the same latitude with Tierra del Fuego and only between two and three hundred miles distant from it, having a nearly similar climate, with a geological formation almost identical, with favourable situations and the same kind of. Peat is the surface organic layer of a soil that consists of partially decomposed organic matter, derived mostly from plant material, which has accumulated under conditions of waterlogging, oxygen deficiency, high acidity and nutrient deficiency. Peat extracted by peat machines is kept in piles in the field for an average of approximately six months. In Russia the first references to peat and its use appeared in the 18th century in the works of M. V. Lomonosov, I. G. Leman, V. F. Zuev, and V. M. Sever-gin. Tanfil’ev. A large peatland found in 2014 in N Congo-Brazzaville and neighboring Congo-Kinshasa has since been determined to extend over some 55,000 sq mi (140,000 sq km). The most effective way to store peat and prevent spontaneous combustion is to insulate the piles from the air with a layer of wet peat. Silty soil is composed of clay, mud, or small rocks deposited by a lake or river. The milling may be done with harrows, cultivators, or drum-type milling machines hooked to tractors. Kats, M. I. Neishtadt, N. I. P’iavchenko, V. E. Ra-kovskii, V. N. Sukachev, and S. N. Tiuremnov. The underground organs in an anaerobic medium are preserved, and they form the structural, or fibrous, part of peat. Well-aerated and thoroughly decomposed peat is used to mulch seeded fields. The places where peat is formed, peat bogs, are found in river valleys (floodplains and terraces) and at water divides. 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It was a thriving town - there are the remains of successive bath houses, underfloor heating for officers homes, courtyards with statues plus shops and temples, with buildings one on top of … The surface of the deposit is divided into individual sections by sighting paths and drainage canals. Trees and sometimes moss are removed, regardless of the purpose for which the peat is to be used. It is used to prepare composts, mixtures containing mineral fertilizers and lime, and peat-mineral and peat-mineral-ammonia fertilizers. Research on the uses of peat in the USSR is conducted at the All-Union Scientific Research Institute of the Peat Industry in Leningrad, with its branches in Moscow and the village of Radchenko in Kalinin Oblast, the Peat Institute of the Academy of Sciences of the Byelorussian SSR, and special laboratories of the Kalinin, Kaunas, and Tomsk polytechnical institutes. This type of soil started forming millenniums ago, aided by the rapid melting of glaciers. Peat is an organic complex soil, well known for its high compressibility and low stability. All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. A species is the primary taxonomic unit of peat classification; it reflects the original plant association and the primary conditions of peat formation. Geomorphological, geological, hydro-geological, and hydrological conditions prevailing in each part of a bog influence the structure of a deposit in a given climatic zone. Exploitation of peat deposits. The drying, collecting, and loading operations were performed manually. peaty Lentils are grown on a wide variety of soils from sandy loam to deep peaty soils. Mineral Soils 1. The possibility of using peat from a single deposit simultaneously for agricultural and industrial purposes fostered a new trend in peat utilization—the combination use of peat—made possible by the varied properties of the different species types of peat. Kids Definition of peat. The most extensive peat deposits are found in Canada and Russia, with significant peatlands also in N Europe and NE China. The soil is … The age of these buried deposits is measured in tens of millennia. WILMAR- Zero Peat 2. High-moor peat provides good bedding for cattle and poultry. Thorough prospecting is done in order to obtain data for plans for the exploitation and utilization of a peat deposit. See more. In excavation with integrated mechanization, the peat is removed from the deposit with a scoop, processed, and pressed into bricks, which are laid on top of the deposit and later collected and stored. Peat with average properties is harvested by machines that intermix the beds or drainage-enrichment machines. The first reference to peat is Pliny the Elder’s description of “combustible earth” for heating food (AD. The milling method of obtaining peat was developed in the USSR in the late 1940’s. peaty definition: 1. of or like peat: 2. of or like peat: . Peat has a complex chemical composition, which is determined by the conditions under which peat-forming plants originated, by the chemical composition of the plants, and by the degree of decomposition. Peat definition, a highly organic material found in marshy or damp regions, composed of partially decayed vegetable matter: it is cut and dried for use as fuel. Peat deposits of commercial value are accumulations of peat clearly demarcated geographically and not associated with other accumulations. The color varies from yellow or brown to black. Soviet researchers identified the geographic patterns of the distribution of peat bogs, classified the types of peat and peat bogs, compiled cadastres and maps of peat bogs, and studied the chemical composition and physical properties of peat. Peat is traditionally defined as being synonymous with turf being partially carbonized vegetable tissue formed in wet conditions by decomposition of various plants and mosses. The rate of filtration through peat varies over several orders of magnitude. Complex use of peat. Peaty soil synonyms, Peaty soil pronunciation, Peaty soil translation, English dictionary definition of Peaty soil. This preparation helps lower the groundwater level and reduce the moisture content of the peat bog to 86–89 percent, thereby increasing the efficiency of the machines used to extract, dry, and harvest the peat. Strongly decomposed peat finds varied applications in agriculture (see Table 4). | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Historical outline. peat synonyms, peat pronunciation, peat translation, English dictionary definition of peat. Elevators transported raw peat from an open pit, then mixed and pressed it into bricks. Peat is mechanically processed by various working elements: augers, augers and blades, spiral cones, cones, slits, and crushing and grinding devices. The definition of peat soils is critical to forestry practices in Ireland. The prototype of the excavation method was the elevator method, by which approximately 1.3 million tons of lump peat were extracted in 1913. Woody matter in the layer to be worked is removed to a depth of 25–40 cm, or it may be ground into fractions less than 8–25 mm in diameter. From the 1930’s to the 1950’s, peat was used in power engineering, in the production of gas, and as a nonindustrial fuel. The area occupied by peat deposits and bogs throughout the world is approximately 350 million hectares (ha), of which approximately 100 million ha are commercially important. Some peat types are rich in bitumens (2–10 percent). Peaty briquettes are produced by pressure of dry crushed peat at special fourth estates at plants and factories. Clay soil has many crevices that can hold onto salts and can make plants unable to grow successfully. They are found in peatlands (also called bogs or mires). 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The dispersion of raw peat increases the rate of shrinkage, a prerequisite for obtaining a compact and strong product. https://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/Peaty+soil. In this method the peat is dug from narrow trenches, processed, and pressed into bricks. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. [from 14th c.] Derived terms . contains 40–50 percent carbohydrates; humic acids constitute 50 percent or more of strongly decomposed peat. Peat Soil. The peat industry distinguishes four types of peat bogs: low-moor, transitional, high-moor, and mixed. The first is based on isolating individual constituents—bitumens, humic acids, carbohydrates, and so on. The woody subtype is highly decomposed (sometimes as much as 80 percent), the swamp subtype is minimally decomposed, and the woody-swamp subtype occupies an intermediate position. Silty soil feels soft and soapy, it holds moisture, is usually very rich in nutrients. Formation. Peat absorbs and retains large quantities of moisture, ammonia, and cations (especially of heavy metals). The three types of peat—high-moor, transitional, and low-moor—are classified according to the composition of the original plant material, conditions under which the peat was formed, and the peat’s physical and chemical properties. In the 19th century peat was studied by V. V. Dokuchaev, S. G. Navashin, and G.I. General information. Classification. Heat- and sound-insulating peat slabs and garden pots made from peat are also produced. In natural peatlands, the "annual rate of biomassproduction is greater than the rate of decomposition", but i… Peat soil definition is - a soil consisting largley of peat and consequently rich in humus and of acid reaction. Peat containing vivianite is used as a phosphorus fertilizer, and peat with lime as a lime fertilizer. The world’s first book on peat, A Treatise on Peat by Martin Schoock, was written in Latin and published in Groningen in 1658. Peat reserves have not been investigated equally in all economic regions of the country. Silty Soil. Peat is a soil material that’s composed primarily of decomposed organic materials. ‘Deep peat ’ is considered to be a peat soil with a surface organic layer greater than 1.0 0m thickness (Bruneau and Johnson, 2014). The water content of buried peat is less than that of recent peat. These substances are the products of thermal and oxidative degradation, hydrogenation, and other processes. Chalk soil is a soil that has a high alkalinity and pH due to the amount of lime and calcium carbonate in the soil. The type of peat bog is the primary unit of classification (Figure 1). While clay soil can be difficult to work with, it can be beneficial in the growth of certain plants. Applications for felling licenses on peat soils must also be treated differently. To a geotechnical engineer, however, all soils with an organic content of greater than 20% are known as organic soil, while “peat” is an organic soil with organic content of more than 75%. This is the most qualitative peaty fuel which is used at boiler houses and by population. This restricted definition, including only materials which are entirely of vegetative origin, conflicts with several established soil classification systems. The peatland ecosystem covers 3.7 million square kilometres and is the most efficient carbon sink on the planet, because peatland plants capture CO2 naturally released from the peat, maintaining an equilibrium. The deep-pit method of extracting lump peat is used to supply nonindustrial needs. peaty soil definition. Twenty-five primary types of peat bogs are distinguished in the European USSR and 32 in Western Siberia. Data on peat reserves and extraction in the USSR and abroad are given in Table 2. In the 12th and 13th centuries peat was known as a fuel in Holland and Scotland. Chalk soil is typically not considered to be very fertile and can inhibit growth in grapevines, as the high alkalinity interferes with the uptake and processing of nutrients and energy. It is able to hold onto the roots of plants better and provide a more stable environment than many other types of soil. Despite the annual growth of the dead organic mass, the peat-producing horizon maintains its own independent existence as a natural “factory” for the production of peat. est. any one of a group of soil types formed under conditions of excess moisture from precipitation or from stagnant fresh or slowly running groundwaters that have some mineral content. https://www.thefreedictionary.com/Peaty+soil. Scotland’s National Peatland Plan also encompasses organic soil less than 50cm, which can support typical peatland vegetation (SNH, 2015a). All content on this website, including dictionary, thesaurus, literature, geography, and other reference data is for informational purposes only. The principal operations include milling the top peat layers of a deposit to a depth of 25 mm, drying the milled peat, and gathering the finished product in the form of crumbs. Peat can be added to soil to help plants grow, or can be burned to produce coal. Processing decreases the moisture capacity of fuel peat. The method is completely mechanized and requires less labor and consumption of metal and energy than other methods. Weakly decomposed peat is an excellent filtering material; highly dispersed peat is used as an antifiltration material. Learn more. Activated charcoal is produced from peat in the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, and the USSR. The three subtypes are divided into groups consisting of four to eight species each (Table 1). The rate of decomposition of peat-forming plants in the peat-producing horizon varies with the plant species, the water content, acidity, and temperature of the medium, and the composition of the mineral constituents. Formation of peat. In the view of some scientists, peat is a precursor of a genetic series of coals. Peat-humus bricks and greenhouse soil mixtures are used with other constituents, including manure and mineral fertilizers, to grow vegetables and flowers; undecomposed peat serves as a biological fuel. Peat typically has a high moisture content in the natural state (88–96 percent), high porosity (up to 96–97 percent), and high compressibility. Peat deposits must be drained and the surface specially prepared before the deposit can be worked. Peat has a lot of important qualities which determine its worth for agriculture: 1. Peat soils are formed from partially decomposed plant material under anaerobic water saturated conditions. The useful properties of peat are improved in the course of processing as a result of the increase in the specific surface of the dispersed material. This information should not be considered complete, up to date, and is not intended to be used in place of a visit, consultation, or advice of a legal, medical, or any other professional. There are 20–28 such cycles in a season and approximately 40–50 cycles when the pneumatic method of collecting the peat is used. Its physical properties vary with the properties of its individual components, the relative amounts of individual components, and the degree of decomposition or degree of dispersion of the solid mass (as determined by the specific surface or quantity of fractions less than 250 micrometers in diameter). Low-moor peat added in large quantities (500 tons per ha or more) helps condition sod-podzolic soils and improve their physical and chemical properties. A hydraulic (hydro-peat) method of extracting peat with complete mechanization of the production processes was developed in the 1920’s and used from 1922 to 1962. Depending on the conditions under which it was formed and on its properties, peat is classified as high-moor, transitional, or low-moor peat. Peat moss as a soil amendment is known to improve the quality of the soil. Fibers found in the soil, especially in peaty soil play an important role in the determination of soil compressibility. Tree stumps and woody inclusions are extracted by stump pullers or crushed by deep-working milling machines; they are then separated and removed. Peat forms when plant material, usually in marshy areas, is inhibited from decaying fully by acidic and anaerobic conditions. A dark-brown or black residuum produced by the partial decomposition and disintegration of mosses, sedges, trees, and other plants that grow in marshes and other wet places. A layer takes one to two days to dry. These constituents are extracted with insignificant changes in the original material in the form of ready products or as raw material for further processing. Research on the use of peat in power technology was carried out in the 1950’s. It is made … Peat is generally distinguished from soil by its high content of organic compounds —at least 50 percent of the weight after all moisture is removed. Deposits of layer-forming species of varying extent and thickness follow one another in a particular succession to form a peat bog. peat (countable and uncountable, plural peats) Soil formed of dead but not fully decayed plants found in bog areas, often burned as fuel. Partly decomposed vegetable matter, usually mosses, found in bogs and sometimes burned as fuel or mixed into soil to improve growing conditions. Indonesia- >300 cm no planting 4. After the Great October Socialist Revolution, research, industrial, and academic organizations were created to make a complete study of peat and its use in the economy; they included the Institute of Peat (Instorf) and the Moscow Peat Institute. There are two types: sphagnum peat is produced partially decayed sphagnum moss, and sedge peat from partially decayed sedges and heathers. I. CHISTIAKOV. From Cambridge English Corpus Still, the peaty soils were rarely affected and direct impact of fires was visible in soil … Peat was used in both agriculture and medicine. Peatlands cover about 3% of the earth’s land mass; they are found in the temperate (Northern Europe and America) and tropical regions (South East Asia, South America, South Africa and the Caribbean) 1. Prospecting for peat deposits entails an analysis of maps and aerial photographs; the exploration and prospecting stage is supplemented by field work. Small wood fragments and chips are collected from the surface of the plots by machines with harrows or tractor-drawn drums. Peat forms naturally by the incomplete decomposition of plant and animal constituents under anaerobic conditions at low temperatures. A soil having so high a degree of alkalinity (pH 8.5 or higher) or so high a percentage of exchangeable sodium (15 percent or more of the total exchangeable bases), or both, that plant growth is restricted. The latter extract the peat mass from a layer by means of milling devices that process and spread a layer of peat on the surface of the field. Other tropical peatlands are found in Indonesia and parts of the Amazon region. Preliminary prospecting is conducted on deposits covering an area of more than 1,000 ha in order to determine the feasibility of exploitation. Firs of all, peat makes better the structure of soil. Define peat. The use of a polymer film for this purpose was introduced in 1975. peaty or organo mineral soils (km2) Deep peaty or organic soils (km2) Peat-forming bogs (km2) Peat-fens (km2) England 7,386 6,799 2,727 80 Wales 3,592 706 718 62 Northern Ireland 1,417 2,064 1,069 30 Scotland 34,612 17,269 17,720 86 Total area 47,007 26,838 22,775 258 UK area cover 19.3% 11% 9.35% 0.11% * Either existing or planned for restoration Peat - definition of peat by The Free Dictionary. In initial afforestation, the soil type governs the suitability of a site for afforestation and the degree of restrictions necessary for environmental protection. By combustible weight, peat consists of 50–60 percent carbon, 5–6.5 percent hydrogen, 30–40 percent oxygen, 1–3 percent nitrogen, and 0.1–1.5 (sometimes 2.5) percent sulfur. Amendment is known to improve growing conditions types of strongly decomposed peat an. Down by the Free dictionary in this method the peat is a of... 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